Brief description of the Oxidative Damage Biomarkers offered as Analytical Testing Service

DNA Damage

  1. 8-OHdG. – Measured in both urine and serum/plasma samples.
    It is the "gold" standard for measuring the oxidative DNA damage. 8-OHdG is a hydroxyl radical-damaged guanine nucleotide that has been excised from DNA by endonuclease repair enzymes. Since repair is known to normally occur quickly and efficiently, the amount of excised DNA adducts in urine directly reflects the amount of damage within the entire body. (Method: Manual ELISA assay)

Lipid Damage

  1. 8-epi-PGF2a (F2-Isoprostane) – Measured in urine samples only. Free Radical catalyzed non-enzymatic oxidation product of arachidonic acid.
    Peroxidation of arachidonic acid occurs in cellular membranes and lipoproteins (i.e. LDL). The damaged lipid peroxide is excised from the cell wall into the serum and then excreted in urine. Unlike the reactive aldehydes, once isoprostanes are formed they are chemically stable and can be accurately measured in urine. (Method: Manual ELISA assay)

  2. Total Alkenals (MDA + 4-HNE) – Measured in both urine and serum/plasma samples. End products of lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2’-nonenal).
    Total Alkenals are the end products of lipid oxidation formed as a result of the free radical attacks on cellular lipid membranes and lipoproteins (i.e. LDL). They are excised from the cell wall into the serum and then excreted in urine. (Method: spectrophotometric assay performed on a robotic chemical analyzer)
  3. Hexanoyl-Lysine – Measured in both urine and serum/plasma samples.
    Oxidative damage of lipids caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in the lesion of cell functions and aging. Hexanoyl-Lysine adduct is a novel lipid hydroperoxide-modified lysine residue. It is formed by oxidative modification induced by oxidized omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid or arachidonic acid.

Protein Damage

  1. Nitrotyrosine – Measured in both urine and serum/plasma samples.
    Several pathways, including the attack of peroxynitrite on the phenolic ring of tyrosine, lead to the formation of nitrotyrosine in biological systems. Nitrotyrosine has been reported to be associated with several inflammatory disorders such as lung injuries, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc.

Creatinine (Normalizing Factor)

It is measured in urine samples only. Creatinine is a product of the breakdown of ATP/creatine utilization, and is excreted in the urine. Typically, the 12-24 hour urine creatinine values reflect a person’s basal metabolic rate. Therefore, the 12 to 24 hr. urine creatinine values are used to calculate the amount of oxidative damage biomarker being produced relative to the amount of activity of that person (ratio), during that time. (Method: spectro-photometric assay performed on a robotic chemical analyzer)

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Note: Genox’s Products are for RESEARCH USE ONLY.
Users of Genox’s products are strongly advised NOT TO USE THEM FOR CLINICAL/DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

The provision of test reports, generated by using Genox's products, to individuals
or to treating physicians for the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and control of any human disease or impairment of, or the assessment of the health, nutritional, or medical condition of individuals is expressly prohibited by law.
  42 U.S.C. § 263a (2006); 42 C.F.R. § 493.3 (2006); COMAR (2006). Genox is not a CLIA certified laboratory.

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ELISA Testing Kits
Genox Corporation has
developed biomarker
assays to measure
several oxidative
damage biomarkers.
upcoming events